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Corporate Information Management Strategic – Case Study Amazon.com


1st Question : Explain in detail the strategies of Amazon in order to survive from dot-com bubble burst era.

IMHO Answer. (Sumber http://www.amazon.com , http://www.smartinsights.com/digital-marketing-strategy/online-business-revenue-models/amazon-case-study, Lynda M. Applegate et al, Corporate Information Strategy and Management: Text and Cases (Eighth Edition), McGraw-Hill)

1.    Strategi terhadap Customer/Pelanggan.
Amazon mengkategorikan Customer/Pelanggan menjadi 3 kategori yakni konsumen set, konsumen  seller, konsumen developer, dari 76 Juta pelanggan hanya 1,3 Juta sebagai seller konsumen padahal mereka memiliki posisi strategis sebagai Value Added Amazon, melalui  inovasi  IS/IT  Amazon terus berupaya menambah jumlah seller dengan memberikan layanan hosting mandiri bagi pelanggan pengembang untuk berkreasi mengembangkan produk bisnis melalui media online. Untuk meningkatkan loyalitas pelanggan, Amazon juga meluncurkan produk “Loyalty Programme” yang menawarkan sejumlah diskon biaya pengiriman ke United States, the United Kingdom, Germany dan Japan.

2.    Strategi memenangkan kompetisi.
Amazon memetakan potential competitor menjadi 4 kategori strategis yakni;
Physical-world retailers, catalog retailers, publishers, vendors, distributors dan manufaktur  produk, sebagian besar dari competitor memiliki keyakinan atas kekuatan merek dagang/brand image, volume transaksi penjualan, orietasi terhadap pelanggan, orientasi penjualan melalui internet base atau direct marketing.
•    Perusahaan E-Commerce lainnya.
•  Competitor yang tidak berhubungan langsung seperti Media Masa, web portal berita, portal  pemeringkatan site E-commerse, mesin pencari/search engine
•    Perusahaan penyedia layanan E-Commerce, termasuk website development dan costumer service yang mereka miliki.

Amazon meyakini memiliki faktor kompetitif utama untuk menarik segmen pasar seperti “pilihan, harga, ketersediaan, kenyamanan, informasi, pencarian, merek dagang, layanan khusus, aksesibilitas, layanan pelanggan, keandalan, kecepatan dalam melayani pelanggan, kemudahan penggunaan, dan kemampuan untuk beradaptasi dengan perubahan kondisi, serta pengalaman keseluruhan pelanggan dan kepercayaan dalam transaksi bersama Amazon” sehingga membuat Amazon leading dibanding competitor lainnya.

3.    Menggunakan konsep penjualan dengan harga murah ke pasar.
Amazon mengurangi resiko penambahan biaya stok barang dengan cara menjembatani antara penjual dan pembeli secara langsung dengan teknologi IS/IT yang mereka miliki sehingga harga produk bisa lebih murah.

4.    Amazon Media sales.
Dengan memanfaatkan mesin pencari popular, Amazon memperkenalkan produk-produk mereka melalui Google Text, Ads Banner hingga tahun 2011 Amazon mengklaim bahwa dengan metoda ini menyumbangkan total 17% dari pendapatan mereka.

5.    Marketing/Pemasaran.
Amazon fokus menggunakan teknologi IS/IT Online WebPortal mereka untuk memasarkan produk dan menggaet pelanggan, selain juga turut menggunakan online marketing channels (Email, Advertising portal , etc). Selain media online juga turut mempromosikan media masa lainnya seperti TV/Radio serta surat kabar cetak. Amazon sangat concern terhadap customer loyalty dan memberikan perlakuan khusus terhadap pelanggan, salah satunya dengan memberikan pemotongan biaya pengiriman untuk loyal customer.

6.    Amazon technology.
Amazon telah menggunakan teknologi proprietary untuk menyokong bisnis mereka, juga teknologi berlisensi dan bekerja sama dengan pihak ketiga, pada Online WebPortal Amazon telah menerapkan berbagai fitur dan fungsi yang mempermudah dan meningkatkan pengalaman berbelanja pelanggan, memungkinkan pihak ketiga untuk menjual produk melalui platform yang Amazon miliki, dan memfasilitasi pemenuhan dan operasi layanan atas pelanggan. Strategi Amazon pada tahun 2005 yakni memfokuskan upaya penciptaan  inovasi yang berkelanjutan dengan menciptakan dan meningkatkan kualitas perangkat lunak,  berinvestasi dalam beberapa bidang teknologi,  investasi dibidang teknologi pencarian. Aset terbesar yang dimiliki Amazon adalah ketersediaan Data Informasi pelanggan sehingga melalui data tersebut dibuat system otomasi untuk pencarian sistem iklan produk otomatis, penawaran produk otomatis, serta Set Informasi bisnis lainnya yang degenerate dengan teknologi Data Mining (keyword, iklan kreatif, counter keuntungan live pelanggan, penaran produk, etc).

7.    Amazon Partnership strategy.
Seiring dengan kemapanan financial Amazon, maka organisasi ini mulai melirik untuk berinvestasi pada sector bisnis lain dan mencoba strategi akuisi atas perusahaan dengan potensial income revenue seperti Drugstore.com (pharmacy), Living.com (furniture), Pets.com (pet supplies), Wineshopper.com (wines), HomeGrocer.com (groceries), Sothebys.com (auctions) and Kozmo.com (urban home delivery). “Platform Amazon ritel” sebagai salah satu ujung tombak Amazon menggaet calon customer ritel untuk memasarkan produk mereka melalui IS/IT system yang mereka miliki.

8.    Amazon Marketing communications.
Tujuan atas marketing communication adalah  Meningkatkan lalu lintas pelanggan ke situs Amazon. Menciptakan kesadaran pelanggan atas produk dan layanan Amazon. Promosi atas discount terhadap pembelian berulang. Mengembangkan produk tambahan/complementary dan peluang pendapatan layanan lain. Memperkuat dan memperluas merek  dagang Amazon.com. Amazon meyakini komunikasi  efektif untuk pemasaran produk mereka terletak pada customer experience , dengan meningkatnya pengalaman pelanggan maka dengan otomatis mereka menjadi agen penyeru terhadap produk Amazon dan akan menciptakan/menarik pelanggan-pelanggan baru lainnya.Program Afiliasi juga diklaim sebagai salah satu metode terbaik untuk mendrive calon customer baru menjadi loyal customer.

2-nd Question :  Amazon Business strategy Timeline.

Answer: (Sumber http://www.amazon.com)

1994
July Company Incorporated
1995
July Amazon.com Sells First Book, “Fluid Concepts & Creative Analogies: Computer Models of the Fundamental Mechanisms of Thought”
1996
July Launches Amazon.com Associates Program
1997
May Announces IPO, Begins Trading on NASDAQ Under “AMZN”
September Introduces 1-ClickTM Shopping
November Opens Fulfillment Center in New Castle, Delaware
1998
February Launches Amazon.com Advantage Program
April Acquires Internet Movie Database
June Opens Music Store
October Launches First International Sites, Amazon.co.uk (UK) and Amazon.de (Germany)
November Opens DVD/Video Store
1999
January Opens Fulfillment Center in Fernley, Nevada
March Launches Amazon.com Auctions
April Opens Fulfillment Center in Coffeyville, Kansas
May Opens Fulfillment Centers in Campbellsville and Lexington, Kentucky
June Acquires Alexa Internet
July Opens Consumer Electronics, and Toys & Games Stores
September Launches zShops
October Opens Customer Service Center in Tacoma, Washington
Acquires Tool Crib of the North‟s Online and Catalog Sales Division
November Opens Home Improvement, Software, Video Games and Gift Ideas Stores
December Jeff Bezos Named TIME Magazine “Person Of The Year”
2000
January Opens Customer Service Center in Huntington, West Virginia
May Opens Kitchen Store
August Announces Toys “R” Us Alliance
Launches Amazon.fr (France)
October Opens Camera & Photo Store
November Launches Amazon.co.jp (Japan)
Launches Marketplace
Introduces First Free Super Saver Shipping Offer (Orders Over $100)
2001
April Announces Borders Group Alliance
August Introduces In-Store Pick Up
September Announces Target Stores Alliance
October Introduces Look Inside The BookTM
2002
June Launches Amazon.ca (Canada)
July Launches Amazon Web Services
August Lowers Free Super Saver Shipping Threshold to $25
September Opens Office Products Store
November Opens Apparel & Accessories Store
2003
April Announces National Basketball Association Alliance
June Launches Amazon Services, Inc. Subsidiary
September Opens Sports & Outdoor Store
October Introduces Search Inside The BookTM
Launches A9.com, Inc. Subsidiary
November Opens Gourmet Food Store
December Opens Health & Personal Care Store
2004
January Introduces Presidential Candidates Feature
April Opens Jewelry Store
May Announces The Bombay Company Alliance
June Opens Software Development Center in Scotland
September Acquires Joyo.com Limited
Launches Paris Hilton Jewelry Line Exclusively on Amazon.com
Subsidiary A9.com Launches New Web Site and A9 Toolbar
October Amazon Web Services Offerings Give Developers Unprecedented Access to Amazon Product Data and Technology, and First-Ever Access to Data Compiled by Alexa Internet
Launches Beauty Store
November A9.com Introduces Toolbar for Mozilla Firefox
Launches Amazon Theater
December Announces Opportunity to Contribute to American Red Cross Tsunami Disaster Relief Efforts on Amazon.com
Reports Busiest Holiday Season Ever
2005
January Announces Diane Von Furstenberg Alliance
A9.com Launches Yellow Pages
February Introduces Amazon Prime
Announces Nonprofit Innovation Award
April Acquires BookSurge LLC
May Introduces Amazon Wedding
June Celebrates 10th Anniversary with Employee Event Featuring Performances by Bob Dylan, Norah Jones and Bill Maher
Announces Second Short-Film Competition
July Launches Special Deliveries with Select Celebrities and UPS
Acquires CustomFlix Labs, Inc.
August A9.com Launches Maps Launches Amazon Shorts
Launches the First The O.C.-Branded Women’s Fashion Collection
September Launches The Hollywood Prescription
Opens Customer Service Center in Kennewick, Washington
October Alexa Web Information Service Launches on Amazon Web Services Web Site
Announces Fulfillment Agreement with Drugstore.com
November Launches New Gifting Experience
Announces Record-Breaking Watch Sales
Amazon.com Subsidiary Joyo.com Honored with Customer Care Award
Announces Partnership with Celebrities to Raise Money for Hurricane Victims During Holiday Shopping Season
December Announces Customers Ordered over 108 Million Items Worldwide During 11th Holiday Season
2006
January Joyo.com Announces it is the Largest Chinese Bookstore in the World
Announces Alexa Top Sites Web Service for Developers
Announces Amazon Fishbowl with Bill Maher
February Launches Amazon Connect
Announces Jewelry Sales Up More Than 100 Percent in Fourth Quarter 2005
Acquires Shopbop.com
March Launches Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3)
April Announces Partnership Between Timex and Amazon Services
Announces Partnership Between Benefit Cosmetics and Amazon Services
Announces Partnership Between CustomFlix for DVD Distribution
Launches the Media Gateway Program with CustomFlix
May Announces Jewelry and Watch Sales Up More Than 100 Percent in First Quarter
2006
Introduces Print-On-Demand Program for Book Publishers
June Amazon Fishbowl with Bill Maher Premieres on Amazon.com Gateway
Launches Emergency Preparedness Store to Offer Preparation and Recovery Products for Hurricane Season
Unveils Exclusive The Devil Wears Prada Boutique in Apparel & Accessories Store
Launches New Toy and Baby Stores with Largest Selection Ever
July Launches Grocery Store
Amazon Enterprise Solutions Extend E-Commerce Agreement with Target Corporation to 2010
Announces 22% Sales Growth Fueled by Lower Prices, Free Shipping
Amazon Web Services Announces “Alexa Site Thumbnail” Now Available for Developers
Announces Library Processing for Public and Academic Libraries Across the United States
September Launches Amazon UnboxTM, a Digital Video Download Service with DVD-Quality Picture
CustomFlix and Amazon.com Launch CD on Demand Service
Launches WebStore and Fulfillment by Amazon for Small and Medium-Sized Businesses
October Amazon.com Jewelry and Watches Sales up More Than 100% in Third Quarter 2006
November Voted #1 in Customer Service According to National Retail Survey
Consumer Electronics Store Announces New Interest-Free Financing, Click-to-Call and Premium Delivery on Select Electronics
Amazon.com Lets “Customers Vote” for Extraordinary Holiday Deals
December CustomFlix Announces Support for Amazon Unbox
Announces 12th Holiday Season is Best Ever
2007
January Launches Endless.com, a shoe and handbag website that offers over 15,000 styles and free overnight shipping on all products
February Announces Fourth Quarter Sales up 34%; Media Grows 25%; Electronics and Other General Merchandise Grows 55%
Announces Jewelry and Watches Sales up More Than 100% in Fourth Quarter 2006
March “Amazon Unbox on TiVo” Available, Offering Over 1.5 Million Broadband-Ready TiVo Subscribers Access to Thousands of Movies and TV Shows
Launches Classical Music Blowout Store
April Launches “Go Indie” Music Store
Announces First Quarter Sales Surpass $3 Billion, up 32% Year over Year — Operating Profit Grows 38% — Raises Financial Guidance
May Announces Jewelry and Watch Sales Are Up More Than 100 Percent in First Quarter 2007
June Joyo.com becomes “Joyo/Amazon” with a New Look and New Features
July TiVo Subscribers Can Now Browse, Purchase and Rent Amazon Unbox Videos Directly From Their TiVo Box
Announces Falls Church, Va., as the ”Harry-est Town” in America
Announces Second Quarter Sales up 35% Year over Year
Thousands of National Archives Films to be Made Available Through CustomFlix Labs
August Launches Jewelry & Watches Stores Internationally
Announces Tuition & Textbooks Sweepstakes Grand Prize — One Year of Tuition
September Launches Public Beta of Amazon MP3
October Announces Plans to Open New Fulfillment Center in Munster, Indiana
Announces Third Quarter Sales up 41% Year over Year
November Amazon Web Services Offers European Storage for Amazon S3
Launches New Customer Video Reviews
Launches The Holiday Toy List
Amazon Web Services Offers European Storage for Amazon S3
Announces Amazon Customers Vote returns
Launches Amazon Kindle
Launches Askville.com
December Enhances Payment Options with Bill Me Later
Amazon.com purchases J.K. Rowling’s “The Tales of Beedle the Bard”
Announces Its 13th Holiday Season is Best Ever
2008
January Announces Fourth Quarter Sales up 42% to $5.7 Billion
Announces LOVEFiLM will Acquire Amazon‟s UK and German DVD Rental Business
February Board of Directors Authorizes Debt and Stock Repurchase Programs
Announces Jewelry Store Retail Diamond Sales up More Than 100% in Fourth Quarter 2007
Launches Amazon Currency Converter
March Launches New Applications on Facebook(R) Platform–”Amazon Giver” and ”Amazon Grapevine”
Amazon.com Completes Acquisition of Audible
Amazon Web Services Launches ”Elastic IPs”
April Launches ”Amazon TextBuyIt”
Announces First Quarter Sales up 37% to $4.1 Billion
May Announces Jewelry Store Retail Diamond Sales up More Than 100% in First Quarter 2008
Announces Rhiannon D. as the Winner of the ”Amazon Beedle the Bard Ballad Writing Contest”
June Announces New Fulfillment Center in Goodyear, AZ
Launches Office Supplies Store
Amazon.com Acquires Fabric.com
July Announces Second Quarter Sales up 41% to $4.06 Billion
August Amazon.com Acquires AbeBooks
Exclusively Offers Collector‟s Edition of “The Tales of Beedle the Bard”
Amazon Web Services Launches Amazon Elastic Block Store for Amazon EC2
September Launches Election 2008 Store
Launches Motorcycle & ATV Store
Opens New TV Show Stores
October Announces Third Quarter Sales up 31% to $4.26 Billion
Amazon Web Services Launches Amazon EC2 for Windows
November Announces Beginning of Multi-Year Frustration-Free Packaging Initiative
Unveils 2008 Holiday Toy List Powered by Amazon Windowshop
Announces Daily Deal Text Alerts
Amazon Web Services Launches Amazon CloudFront
Announces First-Ever Holiday Customer Review Team
Internet Movie Database launches the German speaking IMDB.de
December Acquires AbeBooks
Amazon Web Services Launches “Public Data Sets on AWS”
Announces 14th Holiday Season Is Best Ever
2009
January Announces Fourth Quarter Sales up 18% to $6.70 Billion
Launches Inauguration Store
February Introduces Amazon Kindle 2
March Introduces Kindle Application for iPhone and iPod Touch
April Announces First Quarter Sales up 18% to $4.89 Billion
Launches Xbox LIVE Store
May Introduces Kindle DX
Introduces AmazonEncore
June Introduces Tom Douglas by Pinzon
July Announces Second Quarter Sales up 14% to $4.65 Billion
Amazon.com Acquires Zappos.com
Introduces AmazonWireless
Launches Outdoor Recreation Store
August Launches new free shopping application for Android
September Introduces AmazonBasics
October Announces Third Quarter Sales up 28% to $5.45 Billion
Announces Kindle is for sale in more than 100 countries
Announces Amazon Wish List‟s 10th Anniversary
Launches Local Express Delivery
Introduces Kindle for PC
November Acquires Zappos.com
Announces expansion of Amazon Web Services into Asia
Launches Frustration-Free Packaging Certification Program
Announces Kindle is available to customers in Canada
Announces Susan Boyle‟s “I Dreamed a Dream” is largest global CD pre-order
Announces Kindle breaks record for sales in a single month during November
December Announces Textbooks Trade-In Program
Announces Kindle breaks monthly sales record
Announces Kindle is the most gifted item ever
Launches the Best Sellers Archive
2010
January Introduces Kindle DX with global wireless
Announces Fourth Quarter Sales up 42% to $9.5 Billion
February Announces Kindle for BlackBerry
March Introduces Kindle for Mac
April Announces Kindle App for iPad
Announces First Quarter Sales up 46% to $7.13 Billion
May Announces Shopping App for iPad
Introduces Kindle for Android
Launches Amazon WebStore
June Launches Wheels Store
Announces IMDB Everywhere initiative
July Announces Second Quarter Sales up $41% to $6.57 Billion
Announces new generation Kindle
August Announces “Your Kindle Commercial Contest”
September Introduces Amazon Mom Program
Launches Kindle for the Web
October Announces Third Quarter Sales up 39% to $7.56 Billion
Acquires BuyVIP.com
Introduces Heidi Klum for New Balance Collection
Endless.com Launches Jewelry Category
November Launches Amazon Studios
Introduces Price Check by Amazon
Launches Amazon.it (Italy)
December Announces $175 Million Investment in LivingSocial
Announces Kindle for the Web
2011
January Announces Fourth Quarter Sales up 36% to $12.95 Billion
Announces Amazon Deals App
Acquires LOVEFiLM International Limited
February Amazon.com Announces Prime Instant Videos, a New Benefit for Prime Members
Amazon Web Services Introduces AWS CloudFormation
March Introduces Amazon Appstore for Android
Introduces Amazon Cloud Drive, Amazon Cloud Player for Web and Amazon Cloud Player for Android
April Announces First Quarter Sales up 38% to $9.86 Billion
Introduces New Kindle Family Member: Kindle with Special Offers
Launches Library Lending for Kindle Books
May Announces MYHABIT.COM
Amazon.com Now Selling More Kindle Books Than Print Books
June Launches AmazonLocal
John Locke Becomes First Independently Published Author to Join the “Kindle Million Club”
July Announces Second Quarter Sales up 51% to $9.91 Billion
Endless.com Announces International Shipping to over 50 Countries Worldwide
AT&T to Sponsor Kindle 3G
August Amazon Web Services Announces Global Rollout of Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (Amazon VPC)
Introduces Kindle Cloud Reader
September Introduces Amazon Silk
Introduces Kindle Fire, Kindle Touch and Kindle Touch 3G
Kindle Books Available at Thousands of Local Libraries

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