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The Open Group Architecture Framework (TOGAF) – Architecture Development Method (ADM)


The Open Group Architecture Framework (TOGAF) adalah sebuah framework yang dikembangkan oleh The Open Group’s Architecture Framework pada tahun 1995. Awalnya TOGAF digunakan oleh Departemen Pertahanan Amerika Serikat namun pada perkembangannya TOGAF banyak digunakan pada berbagai bidang seperti perbankan, industri manufaktur dan juga pendidikan. TOGAF ini digunakan untuk mengembangkan enterprise architecture, dimana terdapat metode dan tools yang detil untuk mengimplementasikannya, hal inilah yang membedakan dengan framework EA lain misalnya framework Zachman. Salah satu kelebihan menggunakan framework TOGAF ini adalah karena sifatnya yang fleksibel dan bersifat open source.

TOGAF memandang enterprise architecture ke dalam empat kategori yaitu:
  1. Business Architecture: Mendeskripsikan tentang bagaimana proses bisnis untuk mencapai tujuan organisasi.
  2. Application Architecture: Merupakan pendeskripsian bagaimana aplikasi tertentu didesain dan bagaimana interaksinya dengan apikasi lainnya.
  3. Data Architecture: Adalah penggambaran bagaimana
    penyimpanan, pengelolaan dan pengaksesan data pada perusahaan.
  4. Technical Architecture: Gambaran mengenai infastruktur hardware dan software yang mendukung aplikasi dan bagaimana interaksinya.
TOGAF secara umum memiliki struktur dan komponen sebagai berikut:
  1. Architecture Development Method (ADM): Merupakan bagian utama dari TOGAF yang memberikan gambaran rinci bagaimana menentukan sebuah enterprise architecture secara spesifik berdasarkan kebutuhan bisnisnya.
  2. Foundation Architecture (Enterprise Continuum): Foundation Architecture merupakan sebuah “framework-within-a-framework” dimana didalamnya tersedia gambaran hubungan untuk pengumpulan arsitektur yang relevan, juga menyediakan bantuan petunjuk pada saat terjadinya perpindahan abstraksi level yang berbeda. Foundation Architecture dapat dikumpulkan melalui ADM. Terdapat tiga bagian pada foundation architecture yaitu Technical Reference Model, Standard Information dan Building Block Information Base.
  3. Resource Base: Pada bagian ini terdapat informasi mengenai guidelines, templates, checklists, latar belakang
    informasi dan detil material pendukung yang membantu arsitek didalam penggunaan ADM.
TOGAF- Architecture Development Method (ADM)
Architecture Development Method (ADM) merupakan metodologi lojik dari TOGAF yang terdiri dari delapan fase utama untuk pengembangan dan pemeliharaan technical architecture dari organisasi. ADM membentuk sebuah siklus yang iteratif untuk keseluruhan proses, antar fase, dan dalam tiap fase di mana pada tiap-tiap iterasi keputusan baru harus diambil. Keputusan tersebut dimaksudkan untuk menentukan luas cakupan enterprise, level kerincian, target waktu yang ingin dicapai dan asset arsitektural yang akan digali dalam enterprise continuum. ADM merupakan metode yang umum sehingga jika diperlukan pada prakteknya ADM dapat disesuaikan dengan kebutuhan spesifik tertentu, misalnya digabungkan dengan framework yang lain sehingga ADM menghasilkan arsitektur yang spesifik terhadap organisasi. ADM dapat dikenali dengan penggambaran siklus yang terdiri dari delapan langkah proses, yaitu Architecture Vision, Business Architecture, Information System architecture, Technology Architecture, Opportunities and   Solution, migration Planning, Implementation Governance, dan  Architecture Change Management. TOGAF  ADM  juga  merupakan  metode  yang  bersifat  generik  dan  mudah  di terapkan  berdasarkan  kebutuhan  banyak  organisasi,  baik  organisasi  industri ataupun industri akademik  seperti  perguruan tinggi.
Secara singkat kedelapan fase ADM adalah sebagai berikut:
  1. Fase Preliminary: Framework and Principles: Merupakan fase persiapan yang bertujuan untuk mengkonfirmasi komitmen dari stakeholder, penentuan framework dan metodologi detil yang akan digunakan pada pengembangan EA.
  2. Fase A : Architecture Vision. Fase ini memiliki tujuan untuk memperoleh komitmen manajemen terhadap fase ADM ini, memvalidasi prinsip, tujuan dan pendorong bisnis, mengidentifikasi stakeholder. Terdapat beberapa langkah untuk mencapaian tujuan fase ini dengan inputan berupa permintaan untuk pembuatan arsitektur, prinsip arsitektur dan enterprise continuum. Output dari fase ini adalah: (1) pernyataan persetujuan pengerjaan arsitektur yang meliputi: Scope dan konstrain serta rencana pengerjaan arsitektur, (2) prinsip arsitektur termasuk prinsip bisnis, (3) Architecture Vision.
  3. Fase B : Business Architecture. Fase B bertujuan untuk (1) memilih sudut pandang terhadap arsitektur yang bersesuaian dengan bisnis dan memilih teknik dan tools yang tepat (2) mendeskripsikan arsitektur bisnis eksisting dan target pengembangannya serta analisis gap antara keduanya. Inputan untuk fase B berasal dari output fase A, sedangkan
    outputnya adalah revisi terbaru dari hasil ouput fase A ditambah dengan arsitektur bisnis eksisting dan target pengembangannya secara detil serta hasil analisis gap, business architecture report dan kebutuhan bisnis yang telah diperbaharui.
  4. Fase C : Information Systems Architectures. Tujuan fase ini adalah untuk mengembangkan arsitektur target untuk data dan/atau domain aplikasi. Pada arsitektur data misalkan untuk menentukan tipe dan sumber data yang diperlukan untuk mendukung bisnis dengan cara yang dimengerti oleh stakeholder. Pada arsitektur aplikasi untuk menentukan jenis
    sistem aplikasi yang dibutuhkan untuk memproses data dan mendukung bisnis.
  5. Fase D : Technology Architecture. Untuk pengembangan arsitektur teknologi target yang akan menjadi basis implementasi selanjutnya.
  6. Fase E : Opportunities and Solutions. Secara umum merupakan fase untuk mengevaluasi dan memilih cara pengimplemetasian, mengidentifikasi parameter strategis untuk perubahan, perhitungan cost dan benefit dari proyek serta menghasilkan rencana implementasi secara keseluruhan berikut strategi migrasinya.
  7. Fase F : Migration Planning: Fase ini bertujuan untuk mengurutkan implementasi proyek berdasarkan prioritas dan daftar tersebut akan menjadi basis bagi rencana detil implementasi dan migrasi.
  8. Fase G : Implementation Governance. Merupakan tahapan memformulasikan rekomendasi untuk setiap implementasi proyek, membuat kontrak arsitektur yang akan menjadi acuan implementasi proyek serta menjaga kesesuaiannya dengan arsitektur yang telah ditentukan.
  9. Fase H : Architecture Change Management. Pada akhir fase ini diharapkan terbentuk skema proses manajemen perubahan arsitektur.
  10. Requirements Management Bertujuan untuk menyediakan proses pengelolaan kebutuhan arsitektur sepanjang fase pada siklus ADM, mengidentifikasi kebutuhan enterprise, menyimpan lalu memberikannya kepada fase yang relevan.

Udayan Banerjee  melalui publikasi tulisan pada blognya yang diposting pada alamat berikut http://setandbma.wordpress.com/2012/03/26/togaf-9-vs-9-1-comparison/, mendifinisikan perbedaan antara TOGAF 9 ADM dan TOGAF 9.1 ADM seperti tampak pada tabel dibawah

Comparison of ADM Objectives – TOGAF 9 vs. TOGAF 9.1

Kiat sukses menjadi seorang network engineer

Phase Objective as per TOGAF 9 Objective as per TOGAF 9.1
Preliminary
  • To review the organizational context for conducting enterprise architecture
  • To identify the sponsor stakeholder(s) and other major stakeholders impacted by the business directive to create an enterprise architecture and determine their requirements and priorities from the enterprise, their relationships with the enterprise, and required working behaviors with each other
  • To ensure that everyone who will be involved in, or benefit from, this approach is committed to the success of the architectural process
  • To enable the architecture sponsor to create requirements for work across the affected business areas
  • To identify and scope the elements of the enterprise organizations affected by the business directive and define the constraints and assumptions (particularly in a federated architecture environment)
  • To define the ‘‘architecture footprint’’ for the organization — the people responsible for performing architecture work, where they are located, and their responsibilities
  • To define the framework and detailed methodologies that are going to be used to develop enterprise architectures in the organization concerned (typically, an adaptation of the generic ADM)
  • To confirm a governance and support framework that will provide business process and resources for architecture governance through the ADM cycle; these will confirm the fitness-for-purpose of the Target Architecture and measure its ongoing effectiveness (normally includes a pilot project)
  • To select and implement supporting tools and other infrastructure to support the architecture activity
  • To define the architecture principles that will form part of the constraints on any architecture work
  1. Determine the Architecture Capability desired by the organization:
    • Review the organizational context for conducting enterprise architecture
    • Identify and scope the elements of the enterprise organizations affected by the Architecture Capability
    • Identify the established frameworks, methods, and processes that intersect with the Architecture Capability
    • Establish Capability Maturity target
  2. Establish the Architecture Capability:
    • Define and establish the Organizational Model for Enterprise Architecture
    • Define and establish the detailed process and resources for architecture governance
    • Select and implement tools that support the Architecture Capability
    • Define the Architecture Principles
Phase A
  • To ensure that this evolution of the architecture development cycle has proper recognition and endorsement from the corporate management of the enterprise, and the support and commitment of the necessary line management
  • To define and organize an architecture development cycle within the overall context of the architecture framework, as established in the Preliminary phase
  • To validate the business principles, business goals, and strategic business drivers of the organization and the enterprise architecture Key Performance Indicators (KPIs)
  • To define the scope of, and to identify and prioritize the components of, the Baseline Architecture effort
  • To define the relevant stakeholders, and their concerns and objectives
  • To define the key business requirements to be addressed in this architecture effort, and the constraints that must be dealt with
  • To articulate an Architecture Vision and formalize the value proposition that demonstrates a response to those requirements and constraints
  • To create a comprehensive plan that addresses scheduling, resourcing, financing, communication, risks, constraints, assumptions, and dependencies, in line with the project management frameworks adopted by the enterprise (such as PRINCE2 or PMBOK)
  • To secure formal approval to proceed
  • To understand the impact on, and of, other enterprise architecture development cycles ongoing in parallel
  1. Develop a high-level aspirational vision of the capabilities and business value to be delivered as a result of the proposed enterprise architecture
  2. Obtain approval for a Statement of Architecture Work that defines a program of works to develop and deploy the architecture outlined in the Architecture Vision
Phase B
  • To describe the Baseline Business Architecture
  • To develop a Target Business Architecture, describing the product and/or service strategy, and the organizational, functional, process, information, and geographic aspects of the business environment, based on the business principles, business goals, and strategic drivers
  • To analyze the gaps between the Baseline and Target Business Architectures
  • To select and develop the relevant architecture viewpoints that will enable the architect to demonstrate how the stakeholder concerns are addressed in the Business Architecture
  • To select the relevant tools and techniques to be used in association with the selected viewpoints
  1. Develop the Target Business Architecture that describes how the enterprise needs to operate to achieve the business goals, and respond to the strategic drivers set out in the Architecture Vision, in a way that addresses the Request for Architecture Work and stakeholder concerns
  2. Identify candidate Architecture Roadmap components based upon gaps between the Baseline and Target Business Architectures
Phase C The objective of Phase C is to develop Target Architectures covering either or both (depending on project scope) of the data and application systems domains.Information Systems Architecture focuses on identifying and defining the applications and data considerations that support an enterprise’s Business Architecture; for example, by defining views that relate to information, knowledge, application services, etc.
  1. Develop the Target Information Systems (Data and Application) Architecture, describing how the enterprise’s Information Systems Architecture will enable the Business Architecture and the Architecture Vision, in a way that addresses the Request for Architecture Work and stakeholder concerns
  2. Identify candidate Architecture Roadmap components based upon gaps between the Baseline and Target Information Systems (Data and Application) Architectures
Phase D The Technology Architecture phase seeks to map application components defined in the Application Architecture phase into a set of technology components, which represent software and hardware components, available from the market or configured within the organization into technology platforms.As Technology Architecture defines the physical realization of an architectural solution, it has strong links to implementation and migration planning.Technology Architecture will define baseline (i.e., current) and target views of the technology portfolio, detailing the roadmap towards the Target Architecture, and to identify key work packages in the roadmap. Technology Architecture completes the set of architectural information and therefore supports cost assessment for particular migration scenarios.
  1. Develop the Target Technology Architecture that enables the logical and physical application and data components and the Architecture Vision, addressing the Request for Architecture Work and stakeholder concerns
  2. Identify candidate Architecture Roadmap components based upon gaps between the Baseline and Target Technology Architectures
Phase E
  • To review the target business objectives and capabilities, consolidate the gaps from Phases B to D, and then organize groups of building blocks to address these capabilities
  • To review and confirm the enterprise’s current parameters for and ability to absorb change
  • To derive a series of Transition Architectures that deliver continuous business value (e.g., capability increments) through the exploitation of opportunities to realize the building blocks
  • To generate and gain consensus on an outline Implementation and Migration Strategy
  1. Generate the initial complete version of the Architecture Roadmap, based upon the gap analysis and candidate Architecture Roadmap components from Phases B, C, and D
  2. Deter mine whether an incremental approach is required, and if so identify Transition Architectures that will deliver continuous business value
Phase F
  • To ensure that the Implementation and Migration Plan is coordinated with the various management frameworks in use within the enterprise
  • To prioritize all work packages, projects, and building blocks by assigning business value to each and conducting a cost/business analysis
  • To finalize the Architecture Vision and Architecture Definition Documents, in line with the agreed implementation approach
  • To confirm the Transition Architectures defined in Phase E with relevant stakeholders
  • To create, evolve, and monitor the detailed Implementation and Migration Plan providing necessary resources to enable the realization of the Transition Architectures, as defined in Phase E
  1. Finalize the Architecture Roadmap and the supporting Implementation and Migration Plan
  2. Ensure that the Implementation and Migration Plan is coordinated with the enterprise’s approach to managing and implementing change in the enterprise’s overall change portfolio
  3. Ensure that the business value and cost of work packages and Transition Architectures is understood by key stakeholders
Phase G
  • To formulate recommendations for each implementation project
  • To govern and manage an Architecture Contract covering the overall implementation and deployment process
  • To perform appropriate governance functions while the solution is being implemented and deployed
  • To ensure conformance with the defined architecture by implementation projects and other projects
  • To ensure that the program of solutions is deployed successfully, as a planned program of work
  • To ensure conformance of the deployed solution with the Target Architecture
  • To mobilize supporting operations that will underpin the future working lifetime of the deployed solution
  1. Ensure conformance with the Target Architecture by implementation projects
  2. Perform appropriate Architecture Governance functions for the solution and any implementation-driven architecture Change Requests
Phase H
  • To ensure that baseline architectures continue to be fit-for-purpose
  • To assess the performance of the architecture and make recommendations for change
  • To assess changes to the framework and principles set up in previous phases
  • To establish an architecture change management process for the new enterprise architecture baseline that is achieved with completion of Phase G
  • To maximize the business value from the architecture and ongoing operations
  • To operate the Governance Framework
  1. Ensure that the architecture lifecycle is maintained
  2. Ensure that the Architecture Governance Framework is executed
  3. Ensure that the enterprise Architecture Capability meets current requirements
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